Crosstab Queries are something you just need to experience to appreciate, and let's take a look at some Crosstab Queries in this video, and the only way to really understand one, is to see it happen. Now the way we're going to create a Crosstab is to go to Create, and we can use the Query Designer, and what we'll do is, if we just drop a table in. Once we get the table in, then we will get our Ribbon up here for our Query Design Tools, and then we can click Crosstab, and it changes what we can design with down here. Now we can also do these just typing in straight SQL, but that's going to be the hard way to do it, especially while learning, so let me show you a better shortcut OK? What we're going to do here is close this query out, and then if you remember, I've done a students instruments query, and depending on what order you're watching this in, you may not have this query, but let me show it to you in SQL View. You can copy that, or you can just watch me, and come back to it later on OK? But really what I'm doing is a join on two tables, I'm getting the students first and last name, concatenating them together, getting the students age, City and instrument, and we'll use that one for now, as a good place to start. So what I want to do with this, is go into Design View, and notice the way this is set up now, if I run it, it returns this information. Well what I'm wanting to find out is, what's the average age for each instrument in each one of our Cities. Now I could pull that as a standard query, but I want to play with that in Crosstab, and show you what that's going to look like. So I'm going to go to Design View, and I don't want the student names in there, so I'm just going to right click and Cut to get those out of there OK? And that's just a little trick to remove things down here, but what I want to do with this now, is come up to the top, and just click on Crosstab OK? Now, just bear with me here, we need to set, for example, the age of the students are going to be the values that we get. The Cities, I want those in the column headers, and then the instruments that are being played, let's put those in the row headings alright? Actually let's do, let's do that differently. Let's switch that around, and we may even come back and look at it differently in just a moment. So we're going to do our instruments across the top in the columns, our students in the rows down the left side, and then the age of our students are going to be grouped as a value OK? And actually I don't want to group those, let's just do an average of those, and so when I execute that now, notice what we've got. How interesting is that? This shows me that in Brentwood, the average is seventeen for the drums, the guitars eleven. In Fairview, the average age is fourteen on the guitar players, and in Nashville, you can see the averages here, OK? Now that gives me the average ages, what if I want to know how many students we have? Well that's very easy to do with a Crosstab, just go back to Design View, and change this from average to just count. Let's just count the number of items that we have, and this is showing me that I have one person learning drums in Brentwood, learned one learning guitar, one in Fairview on guitar, two drummers in Nashville, one guitar player, one piano player, and one saxophone player OK? Now, this gives you just a little idea of what you can do with this. Now let me go back one more time, and let's switch these. Let's make this the column heading, this the row heading, run it one more time, and notice how we've switched these around. Here are our instruments, and here are our Cities OK? Now if I want to get really cool with this, I can come up here and click on Totals, and then come down here, and just say sum these up, and this would give you an idea of what we're looking like in each City. So we have two students in Brentwood, one in Fairview, five in Nashville right now OK? That is a Crosstab, now let me show you one more thing. If we go to Design View, we did this totally by clicking and dragging and choosing our values, our columns, and our rows, now if I get two columns OK, and I try to run this, it'll throw me an error, but notice it will tell me, and remind me what I need to do. I need at least one row heading, one column heading, and one value option, and so I've got two column headings, no row headings, so I go back and set a row heading, and when I run that, it works. Now one other thing I want to show you. After you've done all this, and it's working go to SQL View, and you can see how to build a Crosstab Query, directly in Transact SQL, although I have to admit to you, this is not the way I start doing my Crosstabs. I'm always going to build them in Design, kind of get them close, get them the way I'm liking the way their looking, then I'll go in and start hacking around in the Code a little bit to make them a little more complex or whatever I'm actually looking for. So anyway, that's just a really quick introduction into Crosstabs. Play with these with your data, that makes sense to you, data that you know, and that you can intuitively tell that it's correct. And you'll see, you can get some real powerful information out of your database, by using the Crosstab Query.
TERMS & CONDITIONS OF USE
BY SUBSCRIBING TO THIS SERVICE, YOU ARE CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY AND ARE BECOMING A PARTY TO THIS AGREEMENT, THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF WHICH SHALL PREVAIL IN GOVERNING YOUR RIGHTS OF USE. BY CLICKING THE "BECOME A MEMBER" BUTTON, THE INDIVIDUAL OR ENTITY LICENSING THE PRODUCT ("YOU") IS CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY AND IS BECOMING A PARTY TO THIS AGREEMENT. IF LICENSEE DOES NOT AGREE TO ALL OF THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, THE BUTTON INDICATING "BECOME A MEMBER" MUST NOT BE SELECTED, AND LICENSEE MUST NOT INSTALL OR USE THE SOFTWARE.
"VTC" refers to Virtual Training Company,
"You" refers to the user or subscriber.
"Software" refers to the VTC training content and software.
2. LICENSE: VTC hereby grants to You a worldwide, non-royalty bearing, non-exclusive license to use the Software according to the provisions contained herein and subject to payment of the applicable subscription fees.
3. RESTRICTIONS: You may not do any of the following:
Save the Software to Your hard disk or other storage
medium; permit others to use the Software except as specified by addendum;
modify, reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble the Software; make
derivative works based on the Software; publish or otherwise disseminate
the Software. VTC, Inc., VTC Online University, and the Virtual Training
Company site is owned and operated by VTC, Inc. as a corporation of
All materials on this site are the property of VTC unless otherwise specified. No material from these pages may be copied, reproduced, republished, downloaded, uploaded, posted, transmitted, or distributed in any way. Modification of the materials or use of the materials for any other purpose is a violation of U.S. copyright law and other proprietary rights. For purposes of this Agreement, the use of any such material on any other web site or networked computer environment is prohibited.
4. FEES: The rights granted under this Agreement
are effective only upon payment of the subscription fees, which are
strictly non-refundable other than as expressly provided herein. The
term "monthly subscription" is defined as any 30 day period.
The term "yearly subscription" is defined as one 365 day
period. A yearly subscription ends on the same numerical date as it
began (example July 28, 2004 to July 28, 2005).
The VTC Online University is access to every VTC training tutorial in our library. You pay a flat fee for access to these titles. You are billed according to your renewal selection below, and can renew monthly, yearly, or in any other increment offered. If you choose to be billed monthly, you will be billed every 30 days for the subscription until you request the subscription be cancelled. Our terms of service state that you must cancel a monthly subscription at least two business days before your renewal date. These two days give us enough time to ensure that you will not be charged again.
5. LIMITED WARRANTY: VTC warrants that the Software, if operated as directed, will substantially achieve the functionality described. VTC does not warrant, however, that Your use of the Software will be uninterrupted or that the operation of the Software will be error-free or secure. In addition, the security mechanisms implemented by the Software have inherent limitations, and You must determine that the Software sufficiently meets Your requirements. VTC also warrants that the media containing the Software, if provided by VTC, is free from defects in material from the date You acquired the Software. VTC's sole liability for any breach of this warranty shall be, in VTC's sole discretion: (i) to replace Your defective media or Software; or (ii) to advise You how to achieve substantially the same functionality with the Software as described; or (iii) if the above remedies are impracticable, to refund the subscription fee You paid for the Software. Only if You inform VTC of Your problem with the Software during the applicable subscription period will VTC be obligated to honor this warranty. VTC will use reasonable commercial efforts to repair, replace, advise, or refund pursuant to the foregoing warranty within thirty (30) days of being so notified. If any modifications are made to the Software by You during the warranty period; if the medium is subjected to accident, abuse, or improper use; or if You violate the terms of this Agreement, then this warranty shall immediately terminate. This warranty shall not apply if the Software is used on or in conjunction with hardware or software other than the unmodified version of hardware and software with which the Software was designed to be used as described.
THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY, AND IT IS THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY VTC OR ITS SUPPLIERS. VTC MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTIES' RIGHTS. YOU MAY HAVE OTHER STATUTORY RIGHTS. HOWEVER, TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, THE DURATION OF STATUTORILY REQUIRED WARRANTIES, IF ANY, SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE ABOVE LIMITED WARRANTY PERIOD. MOREOVER, IN NO EVENT WILL WARRANTIES PROVIDED BY LAW, IF ANY, APPLY UNLESS THEY ARE REQUIRED TO APPLY BY STATUTE NOTWITHSTANDING THEIR EXCLUSION BY CONTRACT. NO DEALER, AGENT, OR EMPLOYEE OF VTC IS AUTHORIZED TO MAKE ANY MODIFICATIONS, EXTENSIONS, OR ADDITIONS TO THIS LIMITED WARRANTY.
6. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS: VTC reserves all proprietary rights in and to the Software, is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws and by international treaties. VTC, Inc.
Trademark Notice: VTC, Virtual Training Company,
Inc., The VTC Logo, and VTC Online University, are trademarks of VTC,
Inc. All other company and product names may be trademarks of their
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Copyright © 1995 - 2005 VTC, Inc. All rights reserved.
7. TERMINATION: This Agreement shall automatically terminate if You fail to comply with the restrictions described herein. Your obligations to pay outstanding subscription fees shall survive any termination of this Agreement.
8. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES
AND UNDER NO LEGAL THEORY, TORT, CONTRACT, OR OTHERWISE, SHALL VTC
OR ITS SUPPLIERS OR RESELLERS BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY OTHER PERSON
FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF
ANY CHARACTER, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL,
WORK STOPPAGE, COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, OR ANY AND ALL OTHER
COMMERCIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES. IN NO EVENT WILL VTC BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DAMAGES IN EXCESS OF THE AMOUNT VTC RECEIVED FROM YOU FOR A LICENSE
TO THE SOFTWARE, EVEN IF VTC SHALL HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY
DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY. THIS LIMITATION OF LIABILITY SHALL NOT APPLY TO LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY RESULTING FROM VTC'S NEGLIGENCE TO THE EXTENT APPLICABLE LAW PROHIBITS SUCH LIMITATION. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THIS EXCLUSION AND LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
9. Links To Other Materials: Linked sites found at the VTC site are not under the control of VTC, and we are not responsible for the content of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site. VTC may change links based solely on our discretion, and we reserve the right to terminate any link or linking program at any time. VTC does not, by linking to sites, endorse companies or products to which it links and reserves the right to note as such on its web pages. If you decide to access any of the third party sites linked to this site, you do this entirely at your own risk.
Forums, and Chat are not always screened by VTC, and we are not responsible for the content of any public or open forum content at the site. VTC may change these public forums based solely on our discretion, and we reserve the right to terminate any forum at any time. VTC does not, by allowing these forums, endorse companies or products which may be mentioned in these forums, and reserves the right to note as such on its web pages. If you decide to access any of the public forums in this site, or linked to this site, you do this entirely at your own risk.
9. GOVERNING LAW & DISPUTE RESOLUTION: This Agreement is governed by Virginia law. All disputes between You and VTC shall be finally resolved through arbitration in Winchester, Virginia. This site is controlled by VTC from its offices within the United States of America. VTC makes no representation that materials in the site are appropriate or available for use in other locations, and access to them from territories where their content is illegal is prohibited. Those who choose to access this site from other locations do so on their own initiative and are responsible for compliance with applicable local laws. You may not use or export the Materials in violation of U.S. export laws and regulations. Any claim relating to the Materials shall be governed by the internal substantive laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA.
VTC may revise these Terms at any time by updating this posting. You should visit this page from time to time to review the then-current Terms because they are binding on you. Certain provisions of these Terms may be superseded by expressly designated legal notices or terms located on particular pages at this Site.
If you have any questions regarding this policy,
or your information specifically,
you may email us at:firstname.lastname@example.org.