We're going to continue with our discussion of IPv6 addressing. So IPv6 addresses use a 128 bit IP address. Now this in contrast to an IPv4 address which uses a 32-bit address, four portions or four octets of eight bits each, four times eight is 32, 32-bit IP address. So we all know what an IPv4 address looks like or by this point in your Cisco career, I, I kind of hope you know what an IP address looks like. If not go back and look over some of the labs I've done, you'll, you'll see a few of them in there. In contrast, IPv6 addresses look like that and first time you look at that, you'll look it and go Holy Cow, how, how, what does that do? How do I even, I don't even understand. Well, don't fear, it's, it's pretty logical when you break it down into it's various attendant parts then you'll be able to make a lot more sense out of it. First off, let's just talk about the shortcuts to writing an IPv6 address. Now very rarely will you see an address that's entirely like that because the address is so large. You're going to have lots of zeros in the address at some point so the two rules to writing a IPv6 address is you can drop any leading zeros in any of the quartets and that's what I've called these, since, since octets have eight bits, I call these quartets because they've got four bytes, it's just my term for them but you can drop any, any leading zeros that are in those quartets. Also, any group of all zeros can be abbreviated with a double colon but only once in each IP address and that's simply because you know how many octets there are going to be in an IPv6 address. If you see a double colon and you see how many's on before the double colon and after the double colon then you know, okay, well he's, he just dropped four quartets of double zeros or all zeros and so therefore you know how to expand that IPv6 address back. As an example, here is a Link Local IP address. It's just a sample and I'd be really surprised if you ever actually saw this address. Using the two rules that you see above that, this long IPv6 address can be abbreviated down to that. Something a lot more manageable and a lot easier to read but if you follow the rules then you obviously you know that all the double zeros go there. This is actually 0001 0DC1 et cetera, et cetera. Now IPv6 addresses uses Prefixes just like IPv4 addresses and in reality that's how an IP address or an IPv6 address looks when it's written out. You've got the slash 64 over here which denotes that the first 64 bits of this is the Subnet and the last 64 bits identifies the individual host. So if you were to write out the Subnet from this, if you were to just, just to lop of the last 64 bits, then this would come across as that or if you were going to shorten it even further, that's what your Subnet would be 2340:1111:AAAA:1423 double colon slash 64. Now keep that in mind a couple of slides, we'll start talking about what each Prefix actually is allocated for and how you can tell pretty much by looking at the Prefix what an IP address is. So there are different types of Destination Address in IPv6, a lot of them have an analog to IPv4 but there's one that doesn't and we'll get to that here in just a couple of bullet points. The first is a Unicast address. It's the same in IPv6 and IPv4. It's where one station is talking to another station, it's a single device receiving the Unicast packet, just like an IPv4. Multicast addresses is a group of devices that receives an individual packet and Multicasts is how IPv6 determines if IP addresses are in use on the Local Link because in IPv6, ARP just goes away. The third kind is unique to IPv6. It is an Anycast and it is the closest address. The closest analog I can come to this is not really a function of the IPv4 address but it's something like HSRP or VRRP or some of the Router Redundancy Protocols. You send a packet to an Anycast address and the closest device that is tuned into that Anycast frequency will answer the address. As an example, let's say you are trying to get to Google.com and Google has web servers in probably every country in the world and a lot of major cities so that you can get really fast service no matter where you are in the world. Well if IPv6 were in wide use then Google.com might be registered as an Anycast address. You send an HTTP request to Google.com's Anycast address and IPv6 just figures out, oh well this server over here's the closest to you physically, it can get the data to you the quickest, therefore that's going to be the one that actually responds to that address. There is no Broadcast in IPv6. As I do the, the Jedi hand wave, there is no Broadcast and you remember how I said that Multicast is how IPv6 determines if an address is in the use on the local link? and that ARP went away? Well obviously if there's no Broadcast, then ARP goes away and so there's another method that IPv6 uses to determine if everything's like it should be, that you don't have any duplicates on your local segment and we'll get into that when we actually lab this up. I'll turn on the Debugs and you'll see the packets go back and forth, it's really kind of neat how it works. Now the first 48 bits of any IPv6 address is called the Routing Prefix. Now the Routing Prefix or sometimes called the Global Routing Prefix is how large ISPs identify this block of addresses belongs to me. It's like the Classful addresses you now, the 10. the 12. et cetera, those are Class A's. They're all assigned to AT and T or Charter or Layer 3 or whomever. Again larger than better us determines what ISPs and what countries get what Routing Prefixes. We'll continue on with our discussion of IPv6 addressing in the next video.
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