We're going to discuss IPv6 and we're going to give a brief overview of the protocol, how it works, how the addressing looks. It's scary if you've never really looked at it before and then we'll put this in a lab like we always do and we'll see that IPv4 and IPv6 works pretty much the same. We'll set it up to where we can Ping back and forth, show you how the protocols work and then we're going to set up a basic routing protocol, we're going to set up RIP Next Generation. So IPv6 is the routing protocol of the future. The reason why it has to be the routing protocol of the future is that IPv4 address exhaustion, depending on who you talk to, it's already upon us or it will happen very, very soon or the Internet is full as I've seen some people say. And one of the big reasons for this is the explosive growth of the Internet just over the past few years. I mean, think about your modern house. Let's look at my house for example, not counting the technology that I have here in my Routing and Switching Lab, over in the main house I have a DVR and it has an IP Address. I have a laptop, my kids both have hand held consoles that use WiFi, we're going to get them both a laptop for Christmas. I have a PC, a Firewall, a Network Printer. I have an iPod and a Smart Phone, I've got probably 20 or 30 devices just in a family of four that use an IP address. And while Nadding and Address Overload can get you so far, really at the very base of it, if we keep going the way we're going, we will have to switch IP Protocols and IPv6 is the only way that we're going to combat IP address exhaustion. Just as a comparison, there's just over 4 billion IPv4 address available, you can do the basic math and realize that's it a 32-bit number and you can tell how many individual numbers there are in a 32-bit number. By comparison IPv6 has that many IP addresses and I don't really even know how to say that number, I've been told it's 340 undecillion, I'm pretty sure there's some math nerds in the audience that could set me straight on that if I'm wrong. But basically there's enough IPv6 addresses to give every atom of the Earth's crust it's own IP address and still have enough left over for like 100 more Earths. People have spent a lot of time putting this in terms that people can understand because you look at that big number and you go well, that's just, just huge, what is that, the National Debt? And people just can't really conceptualize a number that large but when you put into terms like that, you know, you can have 100 IP addresses per square meter of the earth or something like that then you can see that IPv6 address exhaustion really won't be a problem. I like the Wikipedia phrases it when you look up IPv6 on Wikipedia, it says it's enough addresses for the foreseeable future. So if we can drag enough people along and get IPv6 in wided option then our IP address exhaustion issues just kind of solve themselves. With that many IP address available I don't see, in the foreseeable future, you using that many IP addresses. Of course I'm sure people said the same thing about having 4 billion IP addresses, 4 billion IP addresses, that's like an IP address for nearly every person in the world. Who could use more than that? Not realizing that, you know, Smart Phones and cars and refrigerators and everything else is going to have an IP address in the near future. Now even though IPv6 is new and strange and exciting, most of the same services still work on IPv6 that work on IPv4. Obviously you have DNS and DHCP, although DHCP works very differently with IPv6 and we'll get kind of a glimpse into that when we look in the lab here in a little bit. Two of the nice things about IPv6 is that number one it eliminates the need for NAT or Port Address Translation. Quite honestly, if you've got 340 undecillion IP addresses why would you need to NAT IP address out to the Internet and you say that to a lot of network engineers and you know, they just look at you, you know, with this look of terror in their eyes. It's like well what I'm going to do for Network Security, I mean, NAT for better or worse, is, is a good tool in a network engineers arsenal to ensure that the IP addresses that are out there on the Internet can't touch your machines that are inside your network. If they're behind a Natted Firewall, then unless you specifically map that traffic through that NAT they're not going to be able to touch the machines inside your network and to be honest, I was that way for awhile. People mentioned IPv6 to me and I'm like well, why would I want my machine to have a, an address that's globally addressable to the Internet and then it just kind of dawned on me, well, what's to stop me from just setting up a Firewall Rule that says, all the traffic from the Internet just doesn't pass this Firewall unless I specifically Map it. Well, there you go, problem solved. It's no worse than setting up a DMZ for a Web Server Farm or setting up a NAT for a Web Server or a Mail Server or anything like that. Another nice thing about IPv6 is that the IPsec service is integrated into the IPv6 Standard meaning that you no longer have to bolt on the bits and bobs for IPv6 like IKE and all of the other Attendant Protocols that make tunnels work. It's built into the protocol. you just kind of turn it on and set your security up on both ends and it's done. You don't have fifteen different implementations of IKE and IPsec and this version of Linux can't talk to this version Open BSD that can't talk to this version of Juniper that can't talk to that version of Cisco and on and on and on. People make a lot of money dealing with that and unfortunately I'm not one of them. So as you can see the people that put IPv6 together obviously much smarter than you or I looked at the common usage for IPv4 and said you know, let's do away with some of this so that we can make the protocol less complex and less needy and therefore make it easier to work. Another advantage of IPv6 is Simplified Packet Processing on your routers. For example, here is a typical IPv4 Packet and you'll see you've got all kinds of things. You got the Version, the Type of Service, the Link, the Flags, the header checks them, if you've gone through a basic networking class, you've gone over this graphic at some point. IPv6 much simpler header. Version, Traffic, Class, Payload Length, Source Address, Destination Address, that's pretty much it. Fewer fields means less overhead on your router, means less chance that someone's going to get in there and monkey around with the packets and make your routers do weird things and on and on and on. It just is a good protocol all the way around. We'll continue with IPv6 addressing in the next video.
TERMS & CONDITIONS OF USE
BY SUBSCRIBING TO THIS SERVICE, YOU ARE CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY AND ARE BECOMING A PARTY TO THIS AGREEMENT, THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF WHICH SHALL PREVAIL IN GOVERNING YOUR RIGHTS OF USE. BY CLICKING THE "BECOME A MEMBER" BUTTON, THE INDIVIDUAL OR ENTITY LICENSING THE PRODUCT ("YOU") IS CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY AND IS BECOMING A PARTY TO THIS AGREEMENT. IF LICENSEE DOES NOT AGREE TO ALL OF THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, THE BUTTON INDICATING "BECOME A MEMBER" MUST NOT BE SELECTED, AND LICENSEE MUST NOT INSTALL OR USE THE SOFTWARE.
"VTC" refers to Virtual Training Company,
"You" refers to the user or subscriber.
"Software" refers to the VTC training content and software.
2. LICENSE: VTC hereby grants to You a worldwide, non-royalty bearing, non-exclusive license to use the Software according to the provisions contained herein and subject to payment of the applicable subscription fees.
3. RESTRICTIONS: You may not do any of the following:
Save the Software to Your hard disk or other storage
medium; permit others to use the Software except as specified by addendum;
modify, reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble the Software; make
derivative works based on the Software; publish or otherwise disseminate
the Software. VTC, Inc., VTC Online University, and the Virtual Training
Company site is owned and operated by VTC, Inc. as a corporation of
All materials on this site are the property of VTC unless otherwise specified. No material from these pages may be copied, reproduced, republished, downloaded, uploaded, posted, transmitted, or distributed in any way. Modification of the materials or use of the materials for any other purpose is a violation of U.S. copyright law and other proprietary rights. For purposes of this Agreement, the use of any such material on any other web site or networked computer environment is prohibited.
4. FEES: The rights granted under this Agreement
are effective only upon payment of the subscription fees, which are
strictly non-refundable other than as expressly provided herein. The
term "monthly subscription" is defined as any 30 day period.
The term "yearly subscription" is defined as one 365 day
period. A yearly subscription ends on the same numerical date as it
began (example July 28, 2004 to July 28, 2005).
The VTC Online University is access to every VTC training tutorial in our library. You pay a flat fee for access to these titles. You are billed according to your renewal selection below, and can renew monthly, yearly, or in any other increment offered. If you choose to be billed monthly, you will be billed every 30 days for the subscription until you request the subscription be cancelled. Our terms of service state that you must cancel a monthly subscription at least two business days before your renewal date. These two days give us enough time to ensure that you will not be charged again.
5. LIMITED WARRANTY: VTC warrants that the Software, if operated as directed, will substantially achieve the functionality described. VTC does not warrant, however, that Your use of the Software will be uninterrupted or that the operation of the Software will be error-free or secure. In addition, the security mechanisms implemented by the Software have inherent limitations, and You must determine that the Software sufficiently meets Your requirements. VTC also warrants that the media containing the Software, if provided by VTC, is free from defects in material from the date You acquired the Software. VTC's sole liability for any breach of this warranty shall be, in VTC's sole discretion: (i) to replace Your defective media or Software; or (ii) to advise You how to achieve substantially the same functionality with the Software as described; or (iii) if the above remedies are impracticable, to refund the subscription fee You paid for the Software. Only if You inform VTC of Your problem with the Software during the applicable subscription period will VTC be obligated to honor this warranty. VTC will use reasonable commercial efforts to repair, replace, advise, or refund pursuant to the foregoing warranty within thirty (30) days of being so notified. If any modifications are made to the Software by You during the warranty period; if the medium is subjected to accident, abuse, or improper use; or if You violate the terms of this Agreement, then this warranty shall immediately terminate. This warranty shall not apply if the Software is used on or in conjunction with hardware or software other than the unmodified version of hardware and software with which the Software was designed to be used as described.
THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY, AND IT IS THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY VTC OR ITS SUPPLIERS. VTC MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTIES' RIGHTS. YOU MAY HAVE OTHER STATUTORY RIGHTS. HOWEVER, TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, THE DURATION OF STATUTORILY REQUIRED WARRANTIES, IF ANY, SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE ABOVE LIMITED WARRANTY PERIOD. MOREOVER, IN NO EVENT WILL WARRANTIES PROVIDED BY LAW, IF ANY, APPLY UNLESS THEY ARE REQUIRED TO APPLY BY STATUTE NOTWITHSTANDING THEIR EXCLUSION BY CONTRACT. NO DEALER, AGENT, OR EMPLOYEE OF VTC IS AUTHORIZED TO MAKE ANY MODIFICATIONS, EXTENSIONS, OR ADDITIONS TO THIS LIMITED WARRANTY.
6. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS: VTC reserves all proprietary rights in and to the Software, is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws and by international treaties. VTC, Inc.
Trademark Notice: VTC, Virtual Training Company,
Inc., The VTC Logo, and VTC Online University, are trademarks of VTC,
Inc. All other company and product names may be trademarks of their
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Copyright © 1995 - 2005 VTC, Inc. All rights reserved.
7. TERMINATION: This Agreement shall automatically terminate if You fail to comply with the restrictions described herein. Your obligations to pay outstanding subscription fees shall survive any termination of this Agreement.
8. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES
AND UNDER NO LEGAL THEORY, TORT, CONTRACT, OR OTHERWISE, SHALL VTC
OR ITS SUPPLIERS OR RESELLERS BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY OTHER PERSON
FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF
ANY CHARACTER, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL,
WORK STOPPAGE, COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, OR ANY AND ALL OTHER
COMMERCIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES. IN NO EVENT WILL VTC BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DAMAGES IN EXCESS OF THE AMOUNT VTC RECEIVED FROM YOU FOR A LICENSE
TO THE SOFTWARE, EVEN IF VTC SHALL HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY
DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY. THIS LIMITATION OF LIABILITY SHALL NOT APPLY TO LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY RESULTING FROM VTC'S NEGLIGENCE TO THE EXTENT APPLICABLE LAW PROHIBITS SUCH LIMITATION. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THIS EXCLUSION AND LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
9. Links To Other Materials: Linked sites found at the VTC site are not under the control of VTC, and we are not responsible for the content of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site. VTC may change links based solely on our discretion, and we reserve the right to terminate any link or linking program at any time. VTC does not, by linking to sites, endorse companies or products to which it links and reserves the right to note as such on its web pages. If you decide to access any of the third party sites linked to this site, you do this entirely at your own risk.
Forums, and Chat are not always screened by VTC, and we are not responsible for the content of any public or open forum content at the site. VTC may change these public forums based solely on our discretion, and we reserve the right to terminate any forum at any time. VTC does not, by allowing these forums, endorse companies or products which may be mentioned in these forums, and reserves the right to note as such on its web pages. If you decide to access any of the public forums in this site, or linked to this site, you do this entirely at your own risk.
9. GOVERNING LAW & DISPUTE RESOLUTION: This Agreement is governed by Virginia law. All disputes between You and VTC shall be finally resolved through arbitration in Winchester, Virginia. This site is controlled by VTC from its offices within the United States of America. VTC makes no representation that materials in the site are appropriate or available for use in other locations, and access to them from territories where their content is illegal is prohibited. Those who choose to access this site from other locations do so on their own initiative and are responsible for compliance with applicable local laws. You may not use or export the Materials in violation of U.S. export laws and regulations. Any claim relating to the Materials shall be governed by the internal substantive laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA.
VTC may revise these Terms at any time by updating this posting. You should visit this page from time to time to review the then-current Terms because they are binding on you. Certain provisions of these Terms may be superseded by expressly designated legal notices or terms located on particular pages at this Site.
If you have any questions regarding this policy,
or your information specifically,
you may email us at:email@example.com.