We just talked about the relationships and how these fields must be connected together, to come across on our report properly. Let's talk about the type of connections. When I have a one and the infinity marker, we refer to this as Referential Integrity. The reason we call it Referential Integrity, is that the integrity of our database is being protected. I can not try to sell a product that is not already in the product file. I cannot place a product on an order, unless I already have a contract with the supplier. When I'm adding new products, the product must have a supplier from my list. If the supplier is not in my list, I must add it to the suppliers first, that's how we protect it. Now I am going to right-click on this line, and I'm going to edit this relationship. In doing so, I can find out what types of joins I have. Now notice, Enforce Referential Integrity is turned on. I must have the supplier, before I can work with the product. Let's go to the Button, that says Join Types. You will notice that we have three choices. Only include rows where the joined fields from both tables are equal. That's our Referential Integrity, never put anything in one table that I cannot find in the primary. The second option we have is what we start referring to, our other types of joins. We refer to these an inner joins and outer joins. The inner and the outer are totally dependent on where the tables lie within your database. Is the table on the inside of the join? Or the outside of the join? Notice in our second example, include all records from suppliers, and only those records from products where the joined fields are equal. Number three is just the opposite. Include all the records from products, and only those from suppliers, where the fields are equal. That's where we get the concept of outer join, suppliers on the outside, inner join, products on the inside. You'll here them primarily referred to as inner and outer join. Just be aware of the fact that it's referring to the order of the table, right or left. Now when we're doing these joins, remember you have two circles intersecting. What I'm really getting is everything from suppliers, but only the intersection in the circle, called my products. Opposite is true with products, I get everything in the circle called products, but only what intersects from the actual suppliers itself. That's what makes it so powerful. Notice also, that this is what we refer to, as a one too many. One product many times on orders. We can have a one to one join, very frequently we will see a one to one when we're going into multiple databases. I have a cross reference of my customer code in an Excel spreadsheet for example. I use that same customer code in my mainframe database. I can join those two files together in Crystal, because they both have the same customer code. In that case, since I have one occurrence of the customer in both databases, I will go ahead and use a one to one. Whenever you're working with a reporting system it is important to understand this relationship screen. Now we can create a relationship, we can map our fields, this is where we see what is equal between the two tables. Now in Access I simply go to my primary table, choose my field, and then drag it on top of the table, with the field of the same name. When I release it, I come up to the join screen, I'm going to create it, and there's my relationship. Now there are times when we are doing a relationship where the fields are not obvious. For instance, Shipper ID actually relates to order. I know it relates through Ship Via. Once again, I can put the join type on, I can say OK, and it creates the relationship, but here's the problem. I knew that, that was possible, I had researched my database, I have a schematic or a drawing of my database, to know that these are related. You have to understand your data. Crystal will also allow us to do this mapping, but again, you need to understand your database first. Let's see how I'm going to create that actual join inside of Crystal Reports.
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